Saya nak kongsi kat sini info mengenai pneumococcal vaccine
What are the benefits of the pneumococcal vaccine?
This vaccine protects against pneumococcal (pronounced new-m'COCKL) infections, which mostly strike children under age 5 and can lead to some of the worst childhood diseases. Pneumococcal infections are one of the most common causes of death in the United States from a disease that's preventable through a vaccine.
Before the vaccine came along, pneumococcal infection caused more than 700 cases of meningitis, 13,000 blood infections, and 5 million ear infections in children under 5 every year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The vaccine is effective in up to 90 percent of people who get it.
The bugs responsible for pneumococcal are bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. They live in the mucous lining of the nose and in the back of the throat. And when they're plentiful enough, they can cause an infection in the respiratory tract, middle ear, or sinus cavities. Antibiotics such as penicillin can kill them, but up to 40 percent of the strains are resistant to antibiotics.
Pneumococcal bacteria spread by close contact and through coughing and sneezing. Diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia can crop up within days of infection.
Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia usually include fever and chills with shaking or trembling, as well as chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, fatigue, and weakness. Nausea, vomiting, and headaches are also associated with pneumococcal pneumonia, but are less common.
Pneumococcal bacteria also cause some of the most serious ear infections in children.
News about the latest pneumococcal vaccine
In February 2010, the FDA licensed a new vaccine to prevent pneumococcal disease in children: Prevnar 13, or PCV13. PCV13 protects against more strains of pneumococcal bacteria than the previous vaccine, PCV7.
This protection is important because PCV7 doesn't protect against certain strains of bacteria that have become more common in recent years. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the new vaccine offers protection against the strains of pneumococcal bacteria that most often cause severe pneumococcal infections in children.
What's the recommended schedule?
Recommended number of doses
* At 2 months
* At 4 months
* At 6 months
* Between 12 and 15 months
What to do if your child has already received the old vaccine
The CDC recommends that
1) children who have received one or more doses of PCV7 complete their immunization series with PCV13, and
2) children 14 through 59 months of age who have already received all their PCV7 doses receive one dose of PCV13.
To track your child's immunizations, use BabyCenter's Immunization Scheduler.
Who shouldn't get the PCV vaccine?
Children who've had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous PCV shot or to certain other vaccines should not get the PCV vaccine. If your child has had this type of severe reaction to any immunization, talk to her doctor about whether the PCV vaccine is advisable.
Are there any precautions I should take?
Mildly ill children can be vaccinated. But if your child has a high fever or a severe illness, such as pneumonia, wait until her health improves before taking her in for the vaccine. She'll be better able to handle the immunization when she's healthy.
What are the possible side effects?
About a third of vaccinated children have redness, discomfort, or swelling at the site of the injection. A third also develop a mild fever. One in 20 has a higher fever of over 102.2 degrees.
Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible with any vaccine. See what our expert says about how to tell whether your child is having an adverse reaction.
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